Hippo Facts | Southern Africa Wildlife Guide
- The second-largest terrestrial mammal, weighing up to 4,400 pounds.
- Barrel-shaped bodies and short legs.
- Their heads are well adapted for life in the water, with eyes, ears
andnose all situated on the upper half.
- A hippo can stretch its jaws 150 degrees wide, which is a remarkable scene, particularly when one emerges from murky waters to face a challenge.
HABITATHippos are found in deep bodies of water and slow-moving rivers among grasslands with shallow-sided banks. They prefer a water temperature of 64° to 95° Fahrenheit, and they have even been seen along the seacoast. In fact, in the 1920s, a famous hippo swam all the way along the coast of South Africa from Zululand to the Eastern Cape—a distance of nearly 800 miles! They are found everywhere in Africa where there is sufficient water, and even where the water dries up at certain times of the year. During the rainy season, males sometimes take up temporary residence in seasonal water holes that are located up to 40 miles inland from permanent water sites.
BEHAVIORHippos spend the majority of their time partially or completely submerged in water, resurfacing to breathe every three to five minutes. Dives generally last less than five
Hippos produce a variety of vocalizations, among them the dominant male’s “MUH-Muh-
Humans are the hippo’s only real threat, although a pride of lions will attack a solitary hippo on land, and crocodiles undoubtedly take the occasional baby hippo in the water. When attacked, however, females will try to defend their young by making use of their long tusks (canines).
Despite their benign look, hippos account for more annual wildlife-induced human deaths than any other large mammal, including lions. They are notorious in that they will sometimes capsize boats that get too near to them, and may even drown or bite the people inside. Hippos are also dangerous on land, as they will run over anyone foolish enough to stand in their way to the water.
HIPPO SOCIETYHippos are gregarious and territorial. Group size averages 10 to 15 females with young, led by one dominant male. When water resources become scarce during droughts, groups of 150 have been observed. Dominant males space themselves out along the
Hippos have a curious habit of spraying their dung around a two-meter radius by rapidly whirling their stubby tails as they defecate. This is done simply to show exactly where their boundaries stand, as they are fiercely territorial, both in the water and on land. Hippos have even been known to kill each other for dominance.
FEEDING HABITSHippos are grazers and feed at night, coming out of the water along well-worn trails; it is a misconception that they feed off weeds growing at the bottom of water sources. During the rainy season, when grass is abundant, they feed near the shore. Their two-foot wide lips allow them to eat very short grass. In the dry season, they may walk up to six miles inland in search of food.
As is the case with elephants and zebras, hippos also possess only one stomach. They are non- ruminants,
BREEDINGBoth courtship and mating occur in the water. In theory, territorial males have exclusive mating rights, but in reality, they are continually challenged by other males. Fights are common, leaving animals visibly scarred along their back and flanks. Females give birth in shallow water, and suckling occurs on land or in ankle-deep water, lasting for eight months.
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